9 There were several pioneers and one acknowledged “Father of Philippine Printmaking” in local modern graphic arts. While it is an old art form and technology, Filipino artists in the twentieth century had often resisted etching or carving images on a wooden block or copper plate, and using the complex printing press for artistic expression. The well-known story and history is Manuel Rodriguez, Sr., who upon his return in 1962 from a study grant at the United States, spread the good news about printmaking to his colleagues and the next generation of artists, similar to how Victorio Edades introduced modern art in 1928. The print medium itself has a history of preaching and proselytizing. Integral to the Spanish colonial period in Philippine history was the printing and proliferation of the Doctrina Christiana , which also had several editions in the Eastern Hemisphere in the sixteenth century. The influx of religious orders (Dominicans and Augustinians) in the country at the dawn of the Spanish conquest necessitated the proliferation of prayer books and estampas (printed portraits of devotional saints or religious scenes) therefore requiring a printing press. Several Filipino engravers like Francisco Suarez, Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay, Laureano Atlas, and Felipe Sevilla produced printed estampas and estampitas and called themselves Indio Tagalo or Indio Filipino. Native artist-printers Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay and Francisco Suarez engraved a map of the Philippines done by Pedro Murillo Velarde in 1734, the first time the archipelago was represented cartographically. The transfer of inks and images on the hard surface of a wooden block or copper plate onto paper that were multiplied and disseminated sparked knowledge, inspiration, devotion, and committed conversion among the inhabitants in the archipelago during the Spanish colonial period. In the twentieth century, the first serious practitioner of the graphic medium as fine arts in the Philippines is Spanish-born Juvenal Sanso, who trained extensively in etching in Paris. However, Sanso did not have direct contact with Filipino artists because in 1953, he established residency and a studio in Paris, where he worked exclusively on etchings until the summer of 1968 during the student riots. In 1957, Sanso put up a solo exhibition of etchings at the Philippine Art Gallery, which provided exhibition space for artists who were trying their hand in modern art. The year 1962 is a milestone year for Philippine printmaking. Both Manuel Rodriguez, Sr. and Rodolfo Paras Perez returned from advanced studies abroad and had influenced the artists who would be doing printmaking in some way. Rodolfo Paras-Perez had a masters in art history from the University of Minnesota and had trained in several graphic media during his graduate study. Paras-Perez preferred the woodblock as his mode of graphic expression and his large-scale woodcuts, especially The Kiss (1962, Ateneo Art Gallery Collection) had influenced artists who would subsequently produce woodcuts such as Rodolfo Samonte and Mario Parial. However, his influence was indirect through his exhibitions of prints and, as a professor of art and the humanities at the University of the Philippines, through the