82 History of Printing and Printmaking in the Philippines Printmaking is the process of printing artworks on various media, including paper, woodblock, and copper plate. There are four basic methods in printmaking, namely: relief, intaglio, surface, and stencil prints. These processes can be utilized individually or in conjunction with each other. The technical prowess and innate talent of an artist is required in printmaking, a complicated process involving use of various tools, chemicals, and other materials. Images produced through printmaking are called fine prints. These are produced in limited quantities, and can be categorized as original prints, reproductions, limited editions, artist’s proofs, fine-proofs, trial proofs, and facsimiles. Fine prints made through manual processes are of higher value than those done through photochemical methods. What is the difference between printing and printmaking? Printing is the general process of producing print materials—putting words and photographs onto paper—using a printer, printing press, or other printing devices. Printmaking is the specific act of producing artworks on print materials. Printing can be done by anyone, from a publisher printing newspapers to a student printing homework at home. Printmaking can only be done by an artist of considerable skill and talent. In today’s age of computers and high-quality on-demand printing, the fine art of traditional printmaking in the Philippines faces new challenges. How does one tell the difference between a handmade print and a photographic reproduction? And how does the art community educate Filipinos on the value of fine prints today? This following brief timeline of printmaking in the Philippines is a simple introduction to the art and process of fine prints. 1593 The first three books printed in the Philippines mark the beginning of printmaking in the country. The Doctrina Christiana en lengua españa y tagala , Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua china , and Wu-chi t’ien-chu cheng- chiao chen-chuan shih-lu , are printed to spread the Christian faith among the inhabitants of the archipelago. These early books on Christianity were woodblock prints. 1602 Images of Jesuits and saints printed using the woodblock method are distributed in Manila. The first typographic press is constructed by Chinese convert Juan de Vera. Libro de Nuestra Señora del Rosario , written by Father Francisco Blancas de San Jose, is the first typographically printed book in the country. 1610 Filipino printmaker Tomas Pinpin prints his book Librong pag-aaralan nang manga tagalog sa uicang Castila . His woodcut, the Escutcheon of the Dominican Order , is the earliest known print made by a Filipino. It serves as the cover art of Arte y Regles de la Lengua Tagala , by Father San Jose, also printed by Pinpin. 1618 Printmakers hired by the Augustinian Antonio Damba and Miguel Saixo co-publish the book Relacion de el martyrio de S.F. Hernando de S. Joseph en Japon . Religious orders in the archipelago acquire printing